The weight of recycled copper in Europe
    increased to 43% in 2008. Production of
    secondary refined electrolytic copper
    increased from 800 to 857 thousand tons,
    while the use of directly melted copper
    decreased from 1.242 to 1.150 thousand
    tons. An improved feature of copper is
    its infinite purity during recycling.
    Copper recycling may be made from scrap
    valves, pipes, as well as from wastes
    derived from direct melting.
  • WEEE
    WEEE include chemicals that are highly
    hazardous against environment and
    health: mercury, lead, chrome, bromine,
    halogen chemicals like CFC
    (chlorofluorocarbon, which is
    responsible for damages caused to the
    ozone layer). Given their hazard level,
    they should not be disposed into dump
    sites. They must be collected
    separately and recycled, for the
    protection of life and environment.
    Recycling of aluminum wastes is an
    important source of raw materials for
    secondary metallurgy of aluminum.
    Recycling is made by melting sorted
    wastes, using various types of ovens.
    Power consumption for recycling
    aluminum is significantly lower than
    consumption incurred when producing
    primary aluminum, for which reason
    this procedure is considered to be
    more environment-friendly.
  • WEEE
    WEEE stands for "waste electrical and
    electronic equipment". This category
    mainly includes any domestic or
    industrial equipment that comprises
    electronic components or electric
    engines. In Europe, the WEEE increase
    rate is 4 times higher compared to
    household wastes. Toxicity of electric
    and electronic wastes is 10 times
    higher compared to regular wastes.
    Recapitalization of ferrous wastes derived
    from technological process scrap and from
    old ferrous materials contributes to
    environment protection as the costs for
    raw material processing is higher with up
    to 50% compared to recycling costs, and
    in the same time emission of hazardous
    chemicals into the atmosphere is
    significantly reduced when recycling
    ferrous materials compared to raw
    material processing.


Based on their source and composition, ferrous and nonferrous reusable materials are divided in several categories. Each category is collected, prepared and transported separately to increase efficiency of recycling process. Most ferrous and nonferrous metallic materials are technological wastes derived from production processes (metal shavings, profiled sheets). Metallic materials also derive from wastes collected from population and companies undergoing restructuration, most of them being used or scrap materials. A less (but not negligible) weight belongs to materials derived from consumer goods, like decommissioned vehicles, washing machines, refrigerators, stoves and metallic packaging materials.

Another part of recycled materials is represented by paper and cardboard wastes that, following recycling, provide a huge impact on and environment and on economy. For each ton of recycled paper waste, approximately 4-5 cubic meters of wood and a huge water quantity are saved. Furthermore recycling of paper wastes reduces processing costs of cellulose and also the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere by up to 80%. Most paper and cardboard wastes and recycled packaging materials are collected from population, public companies or institutions and from household waste collection centers.

A relatively new category of recyclable materials are electric, electronic wastes and electric appliances wastes. This category includes most of devices in industry, domestic electric appliances and IT components that include a large content of rare nonferrous materials, therefore they have a higher acquisition price compared to other WEEEs. Apart from the value of such products, recycling in a well managed and environmentally safe system is mandatory as these products may contain highly hazardous and harmful pollutants, e.g. a cathode ray tube from a TV set pollutes 50 square meters of earth for 30 years.

Iron Scrap

Ferrous metallic materials are divided in several categories:

HMS1 - heavy iron processed above 6 mm

HMS2 - light iron processed below 6 mm

HMS1-2N - unprocessed

BGE - heavy iron derived from railroad tracks, wheels, axles.

E5M, E5H – reusable materials in the form of shavings.

EHRB - reusable materials in the form of band iron.



Nonferrous metallic materials are divided in several categories:

COPPER - Cu-B1, Cu-B2, Cu-B3, Cu-S1, Cu-S2, Cu-S3

ALUMINUM - Al-B1, Al-B2, Al-B3, Al-B4, Al-B5, Al-B6

BRASS - CuZn-B1, CuZn-B2, CuZn-B3

BRONZE - CuSt-B1, CuSt-B2, CuSn-B3

LEAD - Pb-B1, Pb-B2, Pb-B3

ZINC – Zn-B1, Zn-B2, Zn-B3




Paper wastes are divided in several categories:

PAPER - paper bales (scrap paper) collected from institutions

CARDBOARD - cardboard bales derived from the packaging of various goods

PACKAGING MATERIALS - bales of packaging materials derived from the packaging of food products (juice boxes, milk boxes, water boxes, syrup boxes)



USED TIRES - most of them are collected from tire shops or companies providing tire replacement services.

Tire shops and related companies are required by law to deliver used tires to certified waste collection companies.

Tires are not reentered into technological processes but they are used as solid fuel.



WEEE are divided in several categories:

ELECTRICS - electric installations (wiring, electric panels)

ELECTRONICS - components of various electronic devices (radios, tape recorders, mobile phones)

ELECTRIC APPLIANCES - TV sets, refrigerators, ovens, freezers, etc.

IT COMPONENTS - monitors, motherboards, video cards, power sources, etc.