Based on their source and composition, ferrous and nonferrous reusable materials are divided in several categories. Each category is collected, prepared and transported separately to increase efficiency of recycling process. Most ferrous and nonferrous metallic materials are technological wastes derived from production processes (metal shavings, profiled sheets). Metallic materials also derive from wastes collected from population and companies undergoing restructuration, most of them being used or scrap materials. A less (but not negligible) weight belongs to materials derived from consumer goods, like decommissioned vehicles, washing machines, refrigerators, stoves and metallic packaging materials.
Another part of recycled materials is represented by paper and cardboard wastes that, following recycling, provide a huge impact on and environment and on economy. For each ton of recycled paper waste, approximately 4-5 cubic meters of wood and a huge water quantity are saved. Furthermore recycling of paper wastes reduces processing costs of cellulose and also the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere by up to 80%. Most paper and cardboard wastes and recycled packaging materials are collected from population, public companies or institutions and from household waste collection centers.
A relatively new category of recyclable materials are electric, electronic wastes and electric appliances wastes. This category includes most of devices in industry, domestic electric appliances and IT components that include a large content of rare nonferrous materials, therefore they have a higher acquisition price compared to other WEEEs. Apart from the value of such products, recycling in a well managed and environmentally safe system is mandatory as these products may contain highly hazardous and harmful pollutants, e.g. a cathode ray tube from a TV set pollutes 50 square meters of earth for 30 years.
Ferrous metallic materials are divided in several categories:
HMS1 - heavy iron processed above 6 mm
HMS2 - light iron processed below 6 mm
HMS1-2N - unprocessed
BGE - heavy iron derived from railroad tracks, wheels, axles.
E5M, E5H – reusable materials in the form of shavings.
EHRB - reusable materials in the form of band iron.×
Nonferrous metallic materials are divided in several categories:
COPPER - Cu-B1, Cu-B2, Cu-B3, Cu-S1, Cu-S2, Cu-S3
ALUMINUM - Al-B1, Al-B2, Al-B3, Al-B4, Al-B5, Al-B6
BRASS - CuZn-B1, CuZn-B2, CuZn-B3
BRONZE - CuSt-B1, CuSt-B2, CuSn-B3
LEAD - Pb-B1, Pb-B2, Pb-B3
ZINC – Zn-B1, Zn-B2, Zn-B3
STAINLESS STEEL - Cr-Ni.×
Paper wastes are divided in several categories:
PAPER - paper bales (scrap paper) collected from institutions
CARDBOARD - cardboard bales derived from the packaging of various goods
PACKAGING MATERIALS - bales of packaging materials derived from the packaging of food products (juice boxes, milk boxes, water boxes, syrup boxes)×
USED TIRES - most of them are collected from tire shops or companies providing tire replacement services.
Tire shops and related companies are required by law to deliver used tires to certified waste collection companies.
Tires are not reentered into technological processes but they are used as solid fuel.×
WEEE are divided in several categories:
ELECTRICS - electric installations (wiring, electric panels)
ELECTRONICS - components of various electronic devices (radios, tape recorders, mobile phones)
ELECTRIC APPLIANCES - TV sets, refrigerators, ovens, freezers, etc.
IT COMPONENTS - monitors, motherboards, video cards, power sources, etc.×